CPSC's Second Draft Standard
Summary: This was CPSC's Second Draft of its bicycle helmet standard. It was published in the Federal Register on December 6, 1995.
That date began a 75 day comment period, but comments were due by February 20, 1996. The final
standard was published in March of 1999.
We also have CPSC's Supplementary Material, which explains their
response to comments made on the first draft.
The rest of this document is the file taken from the GPO gopher. You can access it through a WAIS
search using the keywords "bicycle helmet" from http://ssdc.ucsd.edu/gpo/ That file includes the
UCSD, SS&H Library, GPO Gate
[Federal Register: December 6, 1995 (Volume 60, Number 234)]
[Proposed Rules ]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
Consumer Product Safety Commission
16 CFR Part 1203
Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets; Proposed Rule
CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION
16 CFR Part 1203
Proposed Rule: Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets
AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission.
ACTION: Proposed rule.
SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Children's Bicycle Helmet Safety Act of 1994,
the Commission is proposing a safety standard that would require
bicycle helmets to meet impact-attenuation and other requirements. This
proposal modifies the bicycle helmet standard proposed by the
Commission in the Federal Register of August 15, 1994.
The proposed standard establishes requirements derived from one or
more of the voluntary standards applicable to bicycle helmets. In
addition, the proposed standard includes requirements specifically
applicable to children's helmets and requirements to prevent helmets
from coming off during an accident. The proposed standard also contains
testing and recordkeeping requirements to ensure that bicycle helmets
meet the standard's requirements.
DATES: Comments on the proposal should be submitted no later than
February 20, 1996.
Comments on elements of the proposal that, if issued, would
constitute collection of information requirements under the Paperwork
Reduction Act may be filed with the Office of Management and Budget
(``OMB''). OMB is required to make a decision concerning the
collections of information contained in the proposed rule between 30
and 60 days after publication. Thus, although comments will be received
by OMB until February 5, 1996, a comment to OMB is best assured of
having its full effect if OMB receives it by January 4, 1996.
ADDRESSES: Comments to the Commission should be mailed to the Office of
the Secretary, Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, D.C.
20207, or delivered to the Office of the Secretary, Consumer Product
Safety Commission, room 502, 4330 East-West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland
20814-4408, telephone (301)504-0800. Comments also may be filed with
the Commission by facsimile to (301)504-0127, or by electronic mail via
firstname.lastname@example.org. Comments should include a caption or cover indicating
that they are directed to the Office of the Secretary and are comments
on the revised proposed Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets.
Comments to OMB should be directed to the Desk Officer for the
Consumer Product Safety Commission, Office of Information and
Regulatory Affairs, OMB, Washington, D.C. 20503. The Commission
encourages commenters to provide copies of such comments to the
Commission's Office of the Secretary, with a caption or cover letter
identifying the materials as comments submitted to OMB on the proposed
collection of information requirements for bicycle helmets.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Scott Heh, Project Manager,
Directorate for Engineering Sciences, Consumer Product Safety
Commission, Washington, D.C. 20207; telephone (301) 504-0494 ext. 1308.
For the reasons given above, the Commission proposes to revise Part
1203 of Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations, to read as
PART 1203--SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS
Subpart A--The Standard
1203.1 Scope and effective date.
1203.3 Referenced documents.
1203.5 Construction requirements - projections.
1203.6 Labeling and instructions.
1203.7 Samples for testing.
1203.8 Conditioning environments.
1203.9 Test headforms.
1203.10 Selecting the test headform.
1203.11 Marking the test line.
1203.12 Test requirements.
1203.13 Test schedule.
1203.14 Peripheral vision test.
1203.15 Positional stability test (roll-off resistance).
1203.16 Dynamic strength of retention system test.
1203.17 Impact attenuation test.
1203.18 Reflectivity. [Reserved]
1203.30 Purpose and scope.
1203.31 Effective date.
1203.33 Certification testing.
1203.34 Product certification and labeling by manufacturers
1203.40 Effective date.
1203.41 Recordkeeping requirements.
Subpart D--Bicycle Helmets Manufactured From March 16, 1995, Through
Date That Is 1 Year After The Final Rule Is Issued
1203.52 Scope and effective date.
1203.53 Interim safety standards.
Figures to Part 1203
Authority: Secs. 201-207, Pub. L. 103-267, 108 Stat. 726-729, 15
Subpart A--The Standard
Sec. 1203.1 Scope and effective date.
This standard describes test methods and defines minimum
performance criteria for protective headgear used by bicyclists. The
values stated in International System of Units (``SI'') measurements
are the standard. The inch-pound values stated in parentheses are for
information only. The standard shall become effective 1 year after
publication of the final rule and shall apply to all bicycle helmets
manufactured after that date. Bicycle helmets manufactured between
March 16, 1995, and the date that is 1 year after publication of the
final rule, inclusive, are subject to the requirements of Subpart D,
rather than this Subpart A.
Sec. 1203.2 Purpose.
The purpose and basis of this standard is to reduce the likelihood
of serious injury and death to bicyclists resulting from impacts to the
head, as provided in 15 U.S.C. 6001-6006.
Sec. 1203.3 Referenced documents.
The following documents are referenced in this standard.
(a) Draft ISO/DIS Standard 6220-1983--Headforms for Use in the
Testing of Protective Helmets.1
\1\Available from American National Standards Institute, 11 W.
42nd St., 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036.
(b) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 218, Motorcycle
\2\Available from the Department of Transportation, National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Vehicle Safety
Standards, 400 7th St. S.W., Washington D.C. 20590.
(c) SAE Recommended Practice SAE J211 OCT88, Instrumentation for
\3\Available from Society of Automotive Engineers, 400
Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096.
Sec. 1203.4 Definitions
(a) Basic plane means an anatomical plane that includes the
auditory meatuses (the external ear openings) and the inferior orbital
rims (the bottom edges of the eye sockets). The ISO headforms are
marked with a plane corresponding to this basic plane (see Figures 1
and 2 to this part).
(b) Bicycle helmet means any headgear that either is marketed as,
or has a reasonably foreseeable use as, a device intended to provide
protection from head injuries while riding a bicycle.
(c) Comfort or fit padding means resilient lining material used to
configure the helmet for a range of different head sizes. This padding
has no significant effect on impact attenuation.
(d) Coronal plane is an anatomical plane perpendicular to both the
basic and midsagittal planes and containing the midpoint of a line
connecting the right and left auditory meatuses. The ISO headforms are
marked with a transverse plane corresponding to this coronal plane (see
Figures 1 and 2).
(e) Field of vision is the angle of peripheral vision allowed by
the helmet when positioned on the reference headform.
(f) Helmet positioning index (HPI) is the vertical distance from
the brow of the helmet to the reference plane, when placed on a
reference headform. The vertical distance shall be specified by the
manufacturer for each size of headform the helmet fits.
(g) Midsagittal plane is an anatomical plane perpendicular to the
basic plane and containing the midpoint of the line connecting the
notches of the right and left inferior orbital ridges and the midpoint
of the line connecting the superior rims of the right and left auditory
meatuses. The ISO headforms are marked with a longitudinal plane
corresponding to the midsagittal plane (see Figures 1 and 2 to this
(h) Modular elastomer programmer (MEP) is a cylindrical pad,
typically consisting of a polyurethane rubber, used as a consistent
impact medium for the systems check procedure.
(i) Preload ballast is a ``bean bag'' filled with lead shot placed
on the helmet to secure its position on the headform. The mass of the
preload ballast is 5 kg (11 lb).
(j) Projection is any part of the helmet, internal or external,
that extends beyond the faired surface.
(k) Reference headform is a headform used as a measuring device and
contoured in the same configuration as one of the test headforms A, E,
J, M, and O defined in DRAFT ISO DIS 6220-1983. The reference headform
shall include surface markings corresponding to the basic, coronal,
midsagittal, and reference planes (see Figures 1 and 2 to this part).
(l) Reference plane is a plane marked on the ISO headforms at a
specified distance above and parallel to the basic plane (see Figure 3
to this part).
(m) Retention system is the complete assembly that secures the
helmet in a stable position on the wearer's head.
(n) Shield means optional equipment for helmets that is used in
place of goggles to protect the eyes.
(o) Spherical impactor is a 146 mm (5.75 in.) diameter aluminum
sphere, with a mass of 4005 5 g (8.83 1.10
lb), that is specifically machined for mounting onto the ball-arm
connector of the drop-test assembly. The impactor is used to check the
electronic equipment (see Sec. 1203.17).
(p) Test headform is a solid model in the shape of a human head of
sizes A, E, J, M, and O as defined in DRAFT ISO/DIS 6220-1983.
Headforms used for the impact attenuation test shall be constructed of
K-1A magnesium alloy or functionally equivalent metal. The test
headforms shall include surface markings corresponding to the basic,
coronal, midsagittal, and reference planes (see Figure 2 to this part).
(q) Test region is the area of the helmet, on and above a specified
test line, that is subject to impact testing.
(r) Visor (peak) is optional helmet equipment for protection
against sun or glare, and is sometimes used as a rock or dirt
Sec. 1203.5 Construction requirements--projections.
Any unfaired projection extending more than 7 mm (0.28 in.) from
the helmet's outer surface shall break away or collapse when impacted
with forces equivalent to those produced by the applicable impact-
attenuation tests in Sec. 1203.17 of this standard. Rigid
projections on the inner surface shall not exceed 2 mm (0.08 in.) and
shall not make contact with the test headform after testing in
accordance with Sec. 1203.17.
Sec. 1203.6 Labeling and instructions.
(a) Labeling. Each helmet shall be marked so that the following
information is legible and easily visible to the user and is likely to
remain on the helmet and legible throughout the intended design life of
(1) Model designation.
(2) A warning to the user that no helmet can protect against all
(3) A warning that for maximum protection the helmet must be fitted
and attached properly to the wearer's head in accordance with the
manufacturer's fitting instructions.
(4) A warning to the user that the helmet may, after receiving an
impact, be damaged to the point that it is no longer adequate to
protect the head against further impacts, and that this damage may not
be visible to the user. This label shall also state that a helmet that
has sustained an impact should be returned to the manufacturer for
competent inspection, or be destroyed and replaced.
(5) A warning to the user that the helmet can be damaged by contact
with common substances (for example, certain solvents, cleaners, etc.),
and that this damage may not be visible to the user. This label shall
also state any recommended cleaning agents and procedures, list any
known common substances that damage the helmet, and warn against
contacting the helmet with these substances.
(6) The statement ``Not For Motor Vehicle Use''.
(b) Instructions. Each helmet shall have fitting and positioning
instructions, including graphic representation of proper positioning.
Sec. 1203.7 Samples for testing.
(a) General. Helmets shall be tested in the condition in which they
are offered for sale. They must pass all tests, both with and without
any attachments that may be offered by the helmet's manufacturer, and
with all possible combinations of such attachments.
(b) Number of samples. Five samples of each size for each model and
combination of attachments offered for sale are required to test
conformance to this standard. If a helmet fits more than one size of
test headform, two additional samples are needed for eac h additional
headform size for the testing described in Sec. 1203.10--Selecting the
Sec. 1203.8 Conditioning environments.
Helmets shall be conditioned to one of the following environments
prior to testing in accordance with the test schedule at Sec. 1203.13.
The barometric pressure in all conditioning environments shall be 75 to
110 kPa (22.2 to 32.6 inches of Hg). All test helmets shall be
stabilized within this ambient range for at least 4 hours prior to
further conditioning and testing. Storage or shipment within this
ambient range satisfies this requirement.
(a) Ambient condition. The ambient condition of the test laboratory
shall be within 17 deg.C to 27 deg.C (63 deg.F to 81 deg.F), and 20
to 80 percent relative humidity. The ambient test helmet does not need
(b) Low temperature. The helmet shall be kept at a temperature of
-16 deg.C to -13 deg.C (3 deg.F to 9 deg.F) for 4 to 24 hours prior
(c) High temperature. The helmet shall be kept at a temperature of
47 deg.C to 53 deg.C (117 deg.F to 127 deg.F) for 4 to 24 hours
prior to testing.
(d) Water immersion. The helmet shall be fully immersed ``crown''
down in potable water at a temperature of 17 deg.C to 27 deg.C (63
deg.F to 81 deg.F) to a crown depth of 305 mm25 mm (12
in.1 in.) for 4 to 24 hours prior to testing.
Sec. 1203.9 Test headforms.
The headforms used for testing shall be sizes A, E, J, M, and O, as
defined by DRAFT ISO/DIS 6220-1983. Headforms used for impact testing
shall be constructed of K-1A magnesium alloy or other functionally
equivalent metal and must have no resonant frequencies below 3000 hz.
Sec. 1203.10 Selecting the test headform.
A helmet shall be tested on the appropriate size(s) of headform(s)
on which it fits. Fit means that it is not physically difficult to put
the helmet on the headform, and that the helmet's comfort or fit
padding is partially compressed. A complete set of five helmets of each
size and model shall be tested on the smallest size test headform on
which they fit. Two additional helmets shall be tested on each of the
larger headforms the helmets fit. Testing on the larger headform(s)
will include at least one peripheral vision test, dynamic retention
test, positional stability test, and impact attenuation test (complete
set of four impacts) using the conditioning environment that produced
the highest g value in the impact attenuation tests on the smallest
headform the helmet fit.
Sec. 1203.11 Marking the test line.
Prior to testing, the test line shall be determined for each helmet
in the following manner.
(a) Position the helmet on the appropriate headform as specified by
the manufacturer's head positioning index (HPI), with the brow parallel
to the basic plane. Place a 5-kg (11-lb) preload ballast on top of the
helmet to set the comfort or fit padding.
(b) Draw a test line on the outer surface of the helmet coinciding
with the intersection of the surface of the helmet with the impact line
planes defined from the reference headform as shown in:
(1) Figure 4 to this part for helmets intended for adults and for
children 5 years of age and older.
(2) Figure 5 for helmets intended for children under 5 years of
(c) The center of the impact sites shall be selected at any point
on the helmet on or above the test line.
Sec. 1203.12 Test requirements.
(a) Peripheral vision. The helmet shall allow unobstructed vision
through a minimum of 105 deg. to the left and right sides of the
midsagittal plane when measured in accordance with Sec. 1203.14 of this
(b) Positional stability. The helmet shall not release from the
test headform when tested in accordance with Sec. 1203.15 of this
(c) Dynamic strength of retention system. The retention system
shall remain intact without elongating more than 30 mm (1.2 in.) when
tested in accordance with Sec. 1203.16 of this standard.
(d) Impact attenuation criteria. (1) For bicycle helmets intended
for adults and children 5 years and older. The peak acceleration of any
impact shall not exceed 300 g when the helmet is tested in accordance
with Sec. 1203.17 of this standard.
(2) For bicycle helmets intended for children under 5 years. The
peak acceleration of any impact shall not exceed 250 g when the helmet
is tested in accordance with Sec. 1203.17 of this standard.
Sec. 1203.13 Test schedule.
(a) One of the set of five helmets shall be tested for peripheral
vision in accordance with Sec. 1203.14 of this standard.
(b) Helmet samples 1 through 4 shall be conditioned in the ambient,
high temperature, low temperature, and water immersion environments,
respectively. Helmet 5 shall be conditioned in the ambient condition.
(c) Testing must begin within 2 minutes after the helmet is removed
from the conditioning environment. The helmet shall be returned to the
conditioning environment within 3 minutes after it was removed for a
minimum of 2 minutes before testing is resumed. If the helmet is out of
the conditioning environment for longer than 3 minutes, it shall be
reconditioned for 5 minutes for each minute it is out of the
conditioning environment beyond the allotted 3 minutes before testing
(d) Helmets shall be tested for dynamic strength of the retention
system prior to being tested for impact attenuation. Helmets 1 through
4 (conditioned in ambient, high temperature, low temperature, and water
immersion environments) shall be tested in accordance with the dynamic
retention system strength test at Sec. 1203.16. Helmets 1 through 4
shall then be tested in accordance with the impact attenuation tests on
the flat, hemispherical, and curbstone anvils in accordance with the
procedure at Sec. 1203.17. Helmet 5 (conditioned in an ambient
environment) shall be tested in accordance with the positional
stability tests at Sec. 1203.15. Table 1203.13 summarizes the test
Table 1203.13.--Test Schedule
Sec. 1203.14 Sec. 1203.15 Sec. 1203.16 Impact tests-4
Peripheral Positional Retention impacts per
vision stability system strength helmet
Helmet 1-Ambient..........X............. .............X 1 Flat X
1 Hemi. X
1 Curb. X
1 TBD* X
Helmet 2-High Temperature. ............ .............X 1 Flat X
1 Hemi. X
1 Curb. X
1 TBD* X
Helmet 3-Low Temperature.. ............ .............X 1 Flat X
1 Hemi. X
1 Curb. X
1 TBD* X
Helmet 4-Water Immersion.. ............ .............X 1 Flat X
1 Hemi. X
1 Curb. X
1 TBD* X
Helmet 5-Ambient.......... ............X..............
* To Be Determined. The fourth impact can be on any of the anvils, at the
discretion of the test personnel.
Sec. 1203.14. Peripheral vision test.
Position the helmet on a reference headform in accordance with the
HPI and place a 5-kg (11-lb) preload ballast on top of the helmet to
set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may
be determined when the helmet is positioned for marking the test
lines.) Peripheral vision is measured horizontally from each side of
the midsagittal plane around the point K (see Figure 6 to this part).
Point K is located on the front surface of the reference headform at
the intersection of the basic and midsagittal planes. The vision shall
not be obstructed within 105 degrees on each side of the midsagittal
plane from point K.
Sec. 1203.15 Positional stability test (roll-off resistance).
(a) Test equipment. (1) Headforms. The geometry of the test
headforms shall comply with the dimensions of the full chin ISO
reference headforms sizes A, E, J, M, and O.
(2) Test fixture. The headform shall be secured in a test fixture
with its vertical axis pointing downward and 45 degrees to the
direction of gravity (see Figure 7 to this part). The test fixture
shall permit rotation of the headform about its vertical axis and
include means to lock the headform in the face up and face down
(3) Dynamic impact apparatus. A dynamic impact apparatus shall be
used to apply a shock load to a helmet secured to a test headform. The
dynamic impact apparatus shall allow a 4-kg (8.8-lb) drop weight to
slide in a guided free fall to impact a rigid stop anvil (see Figure
7). The entire mass of the dynamic impact assembly, including the drop
weight, shall be no more than 5 kg (11 lb).
(4) Strap or cable. A hook and flexible strap or cable shall be
used to connect the dynamic impact apparatus to the helmet. The strap
or cable shall be of a material having an elongation of no more than 5
mm (0.20 in.) per 300 mm (11.8 in.) when loaded with a 22-kg (48.5 lb)
weight in a free hanging position.
(b) Test procedure. (1) Orient the headform so that its face is
down, and lock it in that orientation.
(2) Place the helmet on the appropriate size full chin headform in
accordance with the HPI and fasten the retention system in accordance
with the manufacturer's instructions. Adjust the straps to remove any
(3) Suspend the dynamic impact system from the helmet by
positioning the flexible strap over the helmet along the midsagittal
plane and attaching the hook over the edge of the helmet as shown in
(4) Raise the drop weight to a height of 0.6 m (2 ft) from the stop
anvil and release it, so that it impacts the stop anvil.
(5) The test shall be repeated with the headform face pointing
upwards, so that the helmet is pulled from front to rear.
Sec. 1203.16 Dynamic strength of retention system test.
(a) Test equipment. (1) ISO headforms without the lower chin
portion shall be used.
(2) The retention system strength test equipment shall consist of a
dynamic impact apparatus that allows a 4-kg (8.8-lb) drop weight to
slide in a guided free fall to impact a rigid stop anvil (see Figure
8). Two cylindrical rollers that spin freely, with a diameter of
12.50.5 mm (0.49 in.0.02 in.) that have a
center-to-center distance of 76.01 mm (3.00.04
in.), shall make up a stirrup that represents the bone structure of the
lower jaw. The entire dynamic test apparatus hangs freely on the
retention system. The entire mass of the support assembly, including
the 4-kg (8.8-lb) drop weight, shall be 11 kg0.5 kg (24.2
(b) Test procedure. (1) Place the helmet on the appropriate size
headform on the test device according to the HPI. Fasten the strap of
the retention system under the stirrup.
(2) Mark the pre-test position of the retention system, with the
entire dynamic test apparatus hanging freely on the retention system.
(3) Raise the 4-kg (8.8-lb) drop weight to a height of 0.6 m (2 ft)
from the stop anvil and release it, so that it impacts the stop anvil.
(4) Record the maximum elongation of the retention system during
the impact. A marker system or a displacement transducer, as shown in
Figure 8, are two methods of measuring the elongation.
Sec. 1203.17 Impact attenuation test.
(a) Test instruments and equipment. (1) Measurement of impact
attenuation. Impact attenuation is determined by measuring the
acceleration of the test headform during impact. Acceleration is
measured with a uniaxial accelerometer that is capable of withstanding
a shock of at least 1000 g. The helmet is secured onto the headform and
dropped in a guided free fall, using a monorail test apparatus (see
Figure 9), onto an anvil fixed to a rigid base. The base shall consist
of a solid mass of at least 135 kg (298 lb), the upper surface of which
shall consist of a steel plate at least 12 mm (0.47 in.) thick and
having a surface area of at least 0.10 m\2\ (1.08 ft\2\).
(2) Accelerometer. A uniaxial accelerometer is mounted at the
center of gravity of the test headform, with the sensitive axis aligned
within 5 degrees of vertical when the test headform is in the impact
position. The acceleration data channel and filtering shall comply with
SAE Recommended Practice J211 OCT88, Instrumentation for Impact Tests,
Requirements for Channel Class 1000.
(3) Headform and drop assembly--centers of gravity. The center of
gravity of the test headform is located at the center of the mounting
ball on the support assembly and lies within an inverted cone with its
axis vertical, and forming a 10 degree included angle with the vertex
at the point of impact. The location of the center of gravity of the
drop assembly (combined test headform and support assembly) must meet
FMVSS 218 S7.1.8. The center of gravity of the drop assembly lies
within the rectangular volume bounded by x = -6.4 mm (-0.25 in.), x =
21.6 mm (0.85 in), y = 6.4 mm (0.25 in.), and y = -6.4 mm (-0.25 in),
with the origin located at the center of gravity of the test headform.
The rectangular volume has no boundary along the z-axis. The x-y-z axes
are mutually perpendicular and have positive or negative designations
in accordance with the right-hand rule. The origin of the coordinate
axes is located at the center of the mounting ball on the support
assembly. The x-y-z axes of the test headform assembly on monorail
impact-test equipment are oriented as follows: From the origin, the x-
axis is horizontal with its positive direction going toward and passing
through the vertical centerline of the monorail. The positive z-axis is
downward. The y-axis also is horizontal, and its direction is decided
by the z- and x-axes, using the right-hand rule. See Figure 10 for an
overhead view of the x-y boundary of the location of the center of
(4) Drop assembly. The center of gravity of the headform shall be
at the center of the mounting ball.
(i) Mass of the drop assembly for testing helmets for adults and
children 5 years of age and older. The combined mass of the
instrumented test headform and support assembly (excluding the test
helmet) for the impact test shall be 5.0 0.1 kg (11.00
(ii) Mass of the drop assembly for testing helmets for children
under 5 years. The combined mass of the instrumented test headform (ISO
A or ISO E) and support assembly (excluding the test helmet) for the
impact test shall be 3.9 0.1 kg (8.60 0.22 lb).
(5) Impact anvils. Impact tests shall be performed against the
three different anvils described below. All of the anvils shall be
constructed of steel and shall be solid (i.e., without internal
(i) Flat Anvil. The flat anvil shall have a flat surface area with
an impact face having a minimum diameter of 125 mm (4.92 in.) and shall
be at least 24 mm (0.94 in.) thick (see Figure 11).
(ii) Hemispherical anvil. The hemispherical anvil shall have an
impact surface with a radius of 48 1 mm (1.89
0.04 in.). The profile of the impact surface shall be one
half the surface of a sphere (see Figure 12).
(iii) Curbstone anvil. The curbstone anvil shall have two flat
faces making an angle of 105 degrees and meeting along a striking edge
with a radius of 15 mm 0.5 mm (0.59 0.02 in.).
The height of the curbstone anvil shall not be less than 50 mm (1.97
in.), and the length shall not be less than 200 mm (7.87 in.) (see
(b) Test Procedure. (1) Instrument system check. The impact-
attenuation test instrumentation shall be checked before and after each
series of tests (at least at the beginning and end of each test day) by
dropping an impactor with a spherical impact surface onto an
elastomeric test medium (MEP). The impactor shall be dropped onto the
MEP at a specified impact velocity (2% of a central value)
that is representative of helmet testing drop heights. Before
conducting a series of drops, the center vertical axis of the
accelerometer (see Sec. 1203.17(a)(2)) shall be aligned with the
geometric center of the MEP pad. Six impacts, at intervals of 75
15 seconds, shall be performed at the beginning and end of
the day. The first three impacts at the beginning and end of the day
shall be considered warm-up drops and shall be discarded from the
series. The test parameters selected at each laboratory shall produce
impact accelerations shown to be repeatable within 2% of a
(2) Impact sites. Each of helmets 1 through 4 (one helmet for each
conditioning environment) shall impact at four different sites, one
impact on the flat anvil, one impact on the hemispherical anvil, one
impact on the curbstone anvil, and one impact on an anvil chosen at the
discretion of the test personnel. The center of any impact may be
on or anywhere above the test line, provided it is at least 120 mm
(4.72 in), measured on the surface of the helmet, from any prior impact
center. Rivets and other mechanical fasteners, vents, and any other
helmet feature within the test region are valid test sites.
\4\The intent of this requirement is that the fourth impact will
be on the anvil likely to result in the highest g-value. In the
absence of an indication why another anvil would be more stringent,
this fourth impact should be made with the anvil that produced the
highest g-value in the previous three impacts.
(3) Impact velocity. The helmet shall be dropped onto the flat
anvil from a theoretical drop height of 2 meters (6.56 ft) to achieve
an impact velocity of 6.2 m/s 3% (20.34 ft/s
3%). The helmet shall be dropped onto the hemispherical and
curbstone anvils from a theoretical drop height of 1.2 meters (3.94 ft)
to achieve an impact velocity of 4.8 m/s 3% (15.75 ft/s
3%). The impact velocity shall be measured during the last
40 mm (1.57 in) of free-fall for each test.
(4) Helmet position. Prior to each test, the helmet shall be
positioned on the test headform in accordance with the HPI. The helmet
shall be secured so that it does not shift position prior to impact.
The helmet retention system shall be secured in a manner that does not
interfere with free-fall or impact.
(5) Data. Record the maximum acceleration in g's during impact.
Sec. 1203.18 Reflectivity. [Reserved]
Sec. 1203.30 Purpose and scope.
(a) Purpose. Section 14(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Act
(CPSA), 15 U.S.C. 2063(a), requires every manufacturer (including
importers) and private labeler of a product which is subject to a
consumer product safety standard to issue a certificate that the
product conforms to the applicable standard. Section 14(a) further
requires that the certificate be based either on a test of each product
or on a ``reasonable testing program.'' The purpose of this subpart is
to establish requirements that manufacturers and importers of bicycle
helmets subject to the Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets (Subpart A
of this Part 1203) shall issue certificates of compliance in the form
(b) Scope. The provisions of this subpart apply to all bicycle
helmets that are subject to the requirements of the Safety Standard for
Sec. 1203.31 Effective date.
Any bicycle helmet manufactured more than 1 year after publication
of a final rule must meet the standard and must be certified as
complying with the standard in accordance with this Subpart B.
Sec. 1203.32 Definitions.
The following definitions shall apply to this subpart:
(a) Foreign manufacturer means an entity that manufactured a
bicycle helmet outside the United States.
(b) Manufacturer means the entity that either manufactured a helmet
in the United States or imported a helmet manufactured outside the
(c) Private labeler means an owner of a brand or trademark that is
used on a bicycle helmet subject to the standard and which is not the
brand or trademark of the manufacturer of the bicycle helmet, provided
the owner of the brand or trademark caused, authorized, or approved its
(d) Production lot means a quantity of bicycle helmets from which
certain bicycle helmets are selected for testing prior to certifying
the lot. All bicycle helmets in a lot must be essentially identical in
those design, construction, and material features that relate to the
ability of a bicycle helmet to comply with the standard.
(e) Reasonable testing program means any tests which are identical
or equivalent to, or more stringent than, the tests defined in the
standard and which are performed on one or more bicycle helmets
selected from the production lot to determine whether there is
reasonable assurance that all of the bicycle helmets in that lot comply
with the requirements of the standard.
Sec. 1203.33 Certification testing.
(a) General. Manufacturers, as defined in Sec. 1203.32(a), shall
conduct a reasonable testing program to demonstrate that their bicycle
helmets comply with the requirements of the standard.
(b) Reasonable testing program. This paragraph provides guidance
for establishing a reasonable testing program.
(1) Manufacturers and importers may define their own reasonable
testing programs. Reasonable testing programs may, at the option of
manufacturers and importers, be conducted by an independent third party
qualified to perform such testing programs. However, manufacturers, as
defined in Sec. 1203.32(a), are responsible for insuring compliance
with all requirements of this standard.
(2) To conduct a reasonable testing program, the bicycle helmets
shall be divided into production lots. Sample bicycle helmets from each
production lot shall be tested in accordance with the reasonable
testing program. Whenever there is a change in parts, suppliers of
parts, or production methods that could affect the ability of the
bicycle helmet to comply with the requirements of the standard, the
manufacturer shall establish a new production lot for testing.
(3) The Commission will test for compliance with the standard by
using the standard's test procedures. However, a reasonable testing
program need not be identical to the tests prescribed in the standard.
(4) If the reasonable testing program shows that a bicycle helmet
may not comply with one or more requirements of the standard, no
bicycle helmet in the production lot can be certified as complying
until all noncomplying bicycle helmets in the lot have been identified
and destroyed or altered by repair, redesign, or use of a different
material or components to the extent necessary to make them conform to
(5) The sale or offering for sale of a bicycle helmet that does not
comply with the standard is a prohibited act and a violation of
Sec. 19(a) of the CPSA (15 U.S.C. 2068(a)), regardless of whether the
bicycle helmet has been validly certified.
Sec. 1203.34 Product certification and labeling by manufacturers
(a) Form of permanent label of certification. Manufacturers, as
defined in Sec. 1203.32(a), shall issue certificates of compliance for
bicycle helmets manufactured after the effective date of the standard
in the form of a legible and readily visible label which can reasonably
be expected to remain on the bicycle helmet and legible for the
intended design life of the helmet. Such labeling shall be deemed to be
a certificate of compliance, as that term is used in Sec. 14 of the
CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2063.
(b) Contents of certification label. The certification labels
required by this section shall contain the following:
(1) The statement ``Complies with CPSC Safety Standard for Bicycle
Helmets for Adults and Children Age 5 and Older (16 CFR 1203)'' or
``Complies with CPSC Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets for Children
Under 5 Years (16 CFR 1203)'', as appropriate (for a helmet that meets
the criteria for both an adult helmet and a helmet for children under
age 5, the label may state ``Complies with the CPSC Safety Standard for
Bicycle Helmets for Persons of All Ages'', or equivalent language);
(2) The name of the U.S. manufacturer or importer responsible for
issuing the certificate;
(3) The address of the U.S. manufacturer or importer responsible
for issuing the certificate or, if the name of a private labeler is on
the label, the address of the private labeler;
(4) The name and address of the foreign manufacturer, if the helmet
was manufactured outside the United States;
(5) An identification of the production lot; and
(6) The month and year the product was manufactured.
(c) Coding. (1) The information required by paragraphs (b) (4)
through (6) of this section may be in code, provided:
(i) the person or firm issuing the certificate maintains a written
record of the meaning of each symbol used in the code, and
(ii) the record shall be made available to the distributor,
retailer, consumer, and Commission upon request.
(2) A serial number may be used in place of a production lot
identification on the helmet if it can serve as a code to identify the
production lot. If a bicycle helmet is manufactured for sale by a
private labeler, and if the name of the private labeler is on the
certification label, the name of the manufacturer or importer issuing
the certificate, and the name and address of any foreign
manufacturer, may also be in such a code.
(d) Placement of the label(s). The information required by
paragraphs (b) (2) through (3) must be on one label, unless allowed to
be in code. The other required information may be on separate labels.
The label(s) required by this section must be affixed to the bicycle
helmet. If the label(s) are not immediately visible to the ultimate
purchaser of the bicycle helmet prior to purchase because of packaging
or other marketing practices, a second label is required. That label
shall state, as appropriate, ``Complies with CPSC Safety Standard for
Bicycle Helmets for Adults and Children Age 5 and Older'', or
``Complies with CPSC Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets for Children
Under 5 Years''. The additional label must appear on the container or,
if the container is not visible before purchase, on the promotional
material used with the sale of the bicycle helmet. (For a helmet that
meets the criteria for both an adult helmet and a helmet for children
under age 5, the label may state ``Complies with the CPSC Safety
Standard for Bicycle Helmets for Persons of All Ages'', or equivalent
(e) Additional provisions for importers.
(1) General. The importer of any bicycle helmet subject to the
standard in Subpart A of this Part 1203 must issue the certificate of
compliance required by Sec. 14(a) of the CPSA and this section.
(i) If a reasonable testing program meeting the requirements of
this subpart has been performed by or for the foreign manufacturer of
the product, the importer may rely in good faith on such tests to
support the certificate of compliance provided:
(A) the importer is a resident of the United States or has a
resident agent in the United States,
(B) the records of such tests required by Sec. 1203.41 of Subpart C
of this part are maintained in the United States, and
(C) such records are available to the Commission upon request to
(ii) Test records may be maintained outside of the United States if
they will be provided to the Commission within 48 hours of a request
for the records.
(2) Responsibility of importer. If the importer relies on tests by
the foreign manufacturer to support the certificate of compliance, the
importer shall--in addition to complying with paragraph (e(1)of this
section--examine the records supplied by the manufacturer to determine
that they comply with Sec. 1203.41 of Subpart C of this part.
Sec. 1203.40 Effective date.
The recordkeeping requirements in this subpart are effective [1
year after publication of the final rule] and apply to bicycle helmets
manufactured after that date.
Sec. 1203.41 Recordkeeping requirements.
(a) General. Every person issuing certificates of compliance for
bicycle helmets subject to the standard in Subpart A of this part shall
maintain records which show that the certificates are based on a
reasonable testing program. The records shall be maintained for a
period of at least 3 years from the date of certification of the last
bicycle helmet in each production lot. These records shall be
available, upon request, to any designated officer or employee of the
Commission, in accordance with Sec. 16(b) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C.
(b) Contents of records. Complete test records shall be maintained.
Records shall contain the following information.
(1) An identification of the bicycle helmets tested;
(2) An identification of the production lot;
(3) The results of the tests, including the precise nature of any
(4) A description of the specific actions taken to address any
(5) A detailed description of the tests;
(6) The manufacturer's name and address;
(7) The model and size of each helmet tested;
(8) Identifying information for each helmet tested, including the
production lot for each helmet, and the environmental condition under
which each helmet was tested;
(9) The temperatures in each conditioning environment, and the
relative humidity and temperature of the laboratory;
(10) The peripheral vision clearance;
(11) A description of any failures to conform to any of the
labeling and instruction requirements;
(12) Performance impact results, stating the location of impact,
type of anvil used, velocity prior to impact, and maximum acceleration
measured in g's;
(13) The results of the positional stability test;
(14) The results of the dynamic strength of retention system test;
(15) The name and location of the test laboratory;
(16) The name of the person(s) who performed the test;
(17) The date of the test; and
(18) The system check results.
(c) Format for records. The records required to be maintained by
this section may be in any appropriate form or format that clearly
provides the required information. Certification test results may be
kept on paper, microfiche, computer disk, or other retrievable media.
Where records are kept on computer disk or other retrievable media, the
records shall be made available to the Commission on paper copies, or
via electronic mail in the same format as paper copies, upon request.
Subpart D--Bicycle Helmets Manufactured From March 16, 1995,
Through Date That Is 1 Year After the Final Rule Is Issued
Sec. 1203.51 Purpose and basis.
The purpose and basis of this rule is to protect bicyclists from
head injuries by ensuring that bicycle helmets comply with the
requirements of appropriate existing voluntary standards, as provided
in 15 U.S.C. 6004(a).
Sec. 1203.52 Scope and effective date.
(a) Bicycle helmets manufactured after March 16, 1995, through the
date that is 1 year after issuance of the final standard (Subparts A,
B, and C) shall comply with the requirements of one of the standards
specified in Sec. 1203.53. This requirement shall be considered a
consumer product safety standard issued under the Consumer Product
(b) The term ``bicycle helmet'' is defined at Sec. 1203.4(b).
(c) These interim mandatory safety standards will not apply to
bicycle helmets manufactured after the effective date of the final
bicycle helmet standard.
Sec. 1203.53 Interim safety standards.
(a) Bicycle helmets must comply with one or more of the following
standards, which are incorporated herein by reference:
(1) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z90.4-
1984, Protective Headgear for Bicyclists,
(2) ASTM standards F 1447-93 or F 1447-94, Standard Specification
for Protective Headgear Used in Bicycling, incorporating the relevant
provisions of ASTM F 1446-93 or ASTM F 1446-94, Standard Test Methods
for Equipment and Procedures Used in Evaluating the Performance
Characteristics of Protective Headgear, respectively,
(3) Canadian Standard Association standard, Cycling Helmets--CAN/
(4) Snell Memorial Foundation (Snell) 1990 Standard for Protective
Headgear for Use in Bicycling (designation B-90),
(5) Snell 1990 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in
March 9, 1994 Supplement (designation B-90S),
(6) Snell 1994 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Non-
Motorized Sports (designation N-94), or
(7) Snell 1995 standard for Protective Headgear for Use with
(b) This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of
the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part
51. Copies of the standards may be obtained as follows. Copies of the
ANSI Z90.4 standard are available from: American National Standards
Institute, 11 W. 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036. Copies of
the ASTM standards are available from: ASTM, 1916 Race Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19103. Copies of the Canadian Standards Association
CAN/CSA-D113.2-M89 standard are available from: CSA, 178 Rexdale
Boulevard, Rexdale (Toronto), Ontario, Canada, M9W 1R3. Copies of the
Snell standards are available from: Snell Memorial Foundation, Inc.,
P.O. Box 493, 7 Flowerfield, Suite 28, St. James, New York 11780.
Copies may be inspected at the Office of the Secretary, Consumer
Product Safety Commission, 4330 East-West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland
20814, or at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 N. Capitol Street
NW, Room 700, Washington, DC.
Figures to Part 1203
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Dated: November 13, 1995.
Sadye E. Dunn,
Secretary, Consumer Product Safety Commission.
[FR Doc. 95-28761 Filed 12-5-95; 8:45am]
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